1.1.-Current Analysis and Problematic of the Mexican Countryside
In just over five decades the situation of the Mexican countryside has devolved from bad to worse. It is No coincidence that in rural areas there has been a growing abandonment of the countryside and the peasant farmer for plowing his lands, changing them as workers in other countries (migration). AND also crime has increased, self-defense and armed movements, in intrinsic pursuit of well-being for their communities and in this way to seek to return what little has been left.
That Is why we dealt with this analysis with different perspectives, taking points of view of the peasant, trader, politicians and society in general.
When Porfirio Diaz takes power, the countryside (and the city) was a complete disorder: little production and internal struggles that created an atmosphere of mistrust and insecurity. Very Few dared to invest as they ran the risk of being materially looted by governments in turn through «forced loans» or assaulted and killed by bandits who felt very nationalist hating the rich and foreigners.
Porfirio Díaz imposes a policy of freedom in the economic and dictatorship in the political. People who wanted to prosper indicated that they had the freedom to produce and trade, there was no other way. Those who wanted to prosper by making «grid» politics or trade union, aspiring to governorships or the same presidency, were treated badly, really badly. But people learned. Hundreds or perhaps thousands took advantage of the Law of demarcations and traced back to unspoiled lands to fence what they thought to work. The Government set out to protect its territorial extensions by means of Property Titles. They also Had a long term to pay for their land. So were born thousands of haciendas throughout the Mexican territory. The incentive was not only for nationals, but also for immigrants who saw Mexico as a hope to prosper. Chinese, Germans, Japanese, created large plantations of coffee, sugar cane, corn, etc. Trade was free.
Producers could sell in the national territory or export to other nations without obstacles from the government, there were practically no tariffs or taxes. In Addition, the monetary policy of Porfirio Díaz was solid, since the production of banknotes was anchored to the production of gold and silver. So inflation was practically nil. The result of Diaz’s economic policy was reflected in a growth and prosperity never before achieved. (www.monografias.com).
All This dynamic was stopped by the arrival of the Mexican Revolution. Marxist ideas penetrated Mexican territory and destroyed almost everything that had been built in 30 years of Porfirian capitalism. The ranches and haciendas Are over. The government destroyed the right of private property as indicated by Marxist philosophy. The lands passed into the hands of the State, creating the great state monopoly of land. The Ejido Was created as a perfect control mechanism for the field. Water, subsoil, minerals, coasts, forests, rivers, dams, roads, etc., all remained in the hands of the State. In other words, Mexico practically joined the socialist orbit. We were Not as radical as the Soviets, but little was missing. Perhaps the point of maximum socialization came with the government of Lázaro Cárdenas with the creation of the state monopoly on oil and the state monopoly on education. But He wasn’t the only one. Adolfo Lopez Mateos created the state monopoly on electricity and finally José López Portillo tried to create the state banking monopoly, although all he managed to do was disappear to Mexican banking.
All This socializing movement did not go on joyful paths. The ordinary citizen, even without the management of economic theories, did not look with good eyes that everything handled by the state bureaucracy. There Were entrepreneurs who created their associations to defend themselves from the State. Some managed to bring prestigious international economists who came to Mexico to give their diagnosis and to point out the dangers involved in creating a communist order. Such is the case of the great economist Ludwig von Mises, of the Austrian School of Economics, who in 1943 came to Mexico to do a study of the Mexican economy. He Gave a series of lectures at the universities and in the government. His ideas were so shocking, full of such a solid logic, that the men of state who listened to him, including Manuel Ávila Camacho himself, soon set out to apply some of his recommendations. Only then can we explain why Mexico had 30 years of sustained growth. Unfortunately, no one was careful to cultivate their ideas in the new generations and when Luis Echeverría arrives, he takes the road to socialism.
Miguel de la Madrid had the merit of giving a turn of 180 degrees to the boat. Markets, capitalism, private property, and People’s initiative Had to be relied upon. Carlos Salinas de Gortari manages to give the economy a strong impulse in this sense: it Privatizes more than a thousand bureaucratic companies of the State, it frees the economy of hundreds of useless regulations, it signs the Free Trade Agreement with the United States and Canada. The reaction of the left is not allowed to wait and the Zapatista Movement arises in Chiapas, the EPR, in Guerrero, the PRD and hundreds of parties, grupúsculos, organizations of Communist Masters (CNTE) in order to return to the old communist system.
In Short, the history of Mexico, in the countryside and the city, is debated between two great forces, each one sustained in its own philosophy: that which wants to make of Mexico a socialist country and which wants to make a market economy.
Art. 4th. Of the Agrarian Law.
The Federal Executive will promote the Integral and equitable development of the Rural sector, through the promotion of productive activities and social actions to raise the well-being of the population and their participation in national life.
Producers ‘ Organizations will be able to develop proposals for development and field promotion policies, which will be arranged with Federal executive for its Implementation.
Constitutional Art. 27, (excerpt).
Within the same nucleus of population, no ejidatario may hold more land than the equivalent of 5% of the total ejidal lands.
In any case, the ownership of land in favour of a single ejidatario must be adjusted at the limits indicated in the 15TH fraction.
Fraction XV: In the United Mexican States, the Latifundia are Prohibited.
coNEVAl: National Council for the Evaluation of Social Development Policy.
PRONEse: National Producer of Seeds
SEDATU: Secretary of Land and Urban Agrarian Development.
coRETT: Regulatory Commission For Land Tenure.
RAN: National Agrarian Register.
In just over five decades the situation of the Mexican countryside to devolved from bad to worse., it is No coincidence that in rural areas has grown the abandonment of the field, the little and unmotivated interest in cultivating and planting the land., the history of our predecessors It is little left and apparently has been forgotten since that time when the people stood next to General Emiliano Zapata who held «The land is the one who Works»
But All this goes beyond a sentence because at the present time many governments have passed alluding to the phrase of the general, but they are forgotten of the essence, being only embodied in papers and simple and plain speeches.
Forgetting that the countryside and the peasant need efficient, effective and honest infrastructure mechanisms and policies that encourage the financing and productivity of the field.
In 1950, the share of primary GDP in national GDP was 16.1% and 2012 of 3.4%.
The primary sector of our country, since the mid-80 and 90, has faced an economy of openness to international competition, GATT, TLC, etc., and at the same time has presented a process of disincorporation – CONASUPO, INMECAFE, FERTIMEX, PRONEse, BANRURAL, ProCAMPo, CONAFRUT, CREDIT To THE WORD, etc. – that have forced him to face competition in an adverse environment, under the challenge of elevating his competitiveness.
In the Mexican countryside, there is a highly competitive commercial segment, and in contrast, the vast majority of rural economic units, are of subsistence or self-consumption: of 5.3 million of rural economic units, 3.9 million – 72.6% – belong to this Category and only 448,000 (8.4%) They develop thriving business activity, and 18000 – 0.3% – belong to the dynamic business sector.
In Mexico, more than 60% of the surface is arid or semiarid. 74% of the agricultural area is cultivated in a temporary and only 26% of the cultivated area has irrigation.
Only 1.5% of the total financing of the economy is channeled to the rural sector and only 6% of the agricultural production units have access to the institutional credit. (Agencia Quadratin)
It is Not surprising, therefore, that even when in 2012, 6.7 million people occupied in primary activities, of the 53.3 million of Mexicans in poverty (45.5% of the total population of the country), it suffers it 61% of the rural population.
Such a bleak panorama was presented a couple of weeks ago in the Chamber of Deputies without the speaker having echoed the other Politicians, changing in short to other points of the Minutes and order of the day as they argued engaging with issues not relevant at the time… C Uándo will be relevant the problematic peasant…?
3.2.-Major Federal Programs and Supports
Some of the most important support and programs or at least thus made it seem for the peasants and Ejidatarios are and were., the extinct PRONE and Procampus in which they are Briefly detailed.